Yam Farming and Business - A Complete Guide

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover Page

Tables 3

Figure 3

Acronyms 4

1.0 INTRODUCTION – YAM

(Dioscorea species) 5

1.1 PRODUCTION – YAM PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA 6

1.2 YAM BUSINESS AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES 7

2.0 YAM CULTIVATION 8

2.1 YAM FARMING FUNDANMENTALS 8

2.1.1 Climate for Yam 8

2.1.2 Soil for yam 8

2.1.3 Yam propagation 9

2.1.4 Yam growing cycle 9

2.1.5 Yam main tasks 10

2.1.6 Fertilization of yam 10

2.1.7 Harvesting and storing yam 10

2.2 STEP BY STEP CULTIVATION PROCESS 11

2.2.1 Locate Suitable Farmland For Yam Farming 11

2.2.2 Preparation Of The Land 11 2.2.3 Preparation Of Setts 11 2.2.4 Pre-Sprouting Of Setts 12 2.2.5 Planting Procedures 12

2.2.6 Mulching The Ridges 13

2.2.7 Weed Control 13

2.2.8 Replanting (Replacing Dead Yams) 13

2.2.9 Staking The Yam Vines 14

2.2.10 Training The Vines 14

2.2.11 Fertilizer Application 14

2.2.12 Covering Exposed Tubers 15

2.2.13 Pest and Disease Control 15

2.2.14 Harvesting Time And Method 15

3.0 OVERVIEW OF NIGERIA YAM SECTOR 16

3.1 YAM CONSUMPTION 17

3.1.1 YAM CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA 17

3.2 YAM PRODUCTION AND MARKETING 18

3.2.1 Ware Yam Production in Oyo North (Fieldwork Research Results ) 18

3.2.2 Ware Yam Production in Edo and Kogi States 22

3.3 YAM TRADE AND LOGISTICS 25

3.3.1 How Profitable is Yam Trade 27

3.4 SEED YAM SYSTEM 30

3.4.1 Production of seed yam, Ilushi 31 2 | P a g e

3.4.2 Seed yam marketing system, Ilushi, Edo State 32

3.4.3 Seed yam marketing system – future potential 35

4.0 PROCESSED YAM PRODUCTS 37

4.1 Traditional products 37

4.2 New products 39

4.2.1 Processing - Yam Flour 40

4.2.2 Production of Poundo Yam 40

4.2.3 Raw material 41 4.3 Total output, demand and prices 42

4.4 Constraints to dried yam production 42

5.0 OVERVIEW OF POST HARVEST ISSUES 44

5.1 Preparing yams for storage 44

5.1.1 Curing of yams 44

5.2 Traditional yam storage methods 45

5.3 Improved low-cost storage methods 47

5.3.1 Open-sided shelves store 47

5.3.2 The elevated store-shed 48

5.4 Higher cost improved yam stores 49

5.4.1 The Ventilated-pit store 49

5.4.2 The thatched-roof pit 51

5.4.3 Other more advanced storage methods 51

5.5 Store Only Sound Tubers 52

5.5.1 Physical injuries Yams 52

5.5.2 Transport 52

5.5.3 Nematodes 52

6.0 YAM DISEASES AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA 54

6.1 FIELD DISEASES 54

6.1.1 Yam Mosaic Virus Disease 54

6.1.2 Water yam virus disease (Dioscorea alata virus) 55

6.1.3 Other foliage diseases 55

6.2 STORAGE DISEASES 55

6.2.1 Dry rot 56

6.2.2 Soft rot 57

6.2.3 Wet rot 57

6.3 YAM DISEASE MANAGEMENT 57 Institutional Analysis 60

REFERENCE APPENDICES

Appendix A: IITA matrix of recommended target zones in Nigeria Appendix B: Map of Major Yam Supply Routes and Distribution Centres in Nigeria .

 INTRODUCTION – YAM (Dioscorea species) Yams (Dioscorea species) constitute the predominant starchy staple in sub-Saharan Africa where food security for a growing population is a critical issue. Yam is a tropical crop in the form of large tubers produced by annual and perennial vines grown in Africa, the Americas, the Caribbean, South Pacific and Asia. There are as many as six hundreds of wild and domesticated Dioscorea species- out of which six are economically important staple species. These are: Dioscorea rotundata (white guinea yam), Dioscorea alata (yellow yam), Dioscorea bulbifera (aerial yam), Dioscorea esculant (Chinese yam) and Dioscorea dumetorum (trifoliate yam). White Guinea yam, D. rotundata, is the most important species especially in the dominant yam production zone in West and Central Africa. It is indigenous to West Africa, as is the Yellow yam, D. cayenensis. Water yam, D. alata, the second most cultivated species, originated from Asia and is the most widely distributed species in the world. Yams are grown in the coastal region in rain forests, wood savanna and southern savanna habitats [1] Yams are primary agricultural commodities and major staple crops in Africa, where yam cultivation began about 11,000 years ago. In West Africa they are major sources of income and have high cultural value. They are used in fertility and marriage ceremonies, and a festival is held annually to celebrate its harvest. Apart from serving as food, it has a lot of industrial uses. It is used in production of allpurpose-adhesives. The adhesives are used by producers of cartons, packaging companies and lather and shoe producers. The all-purpose adhesives is produced with yam or cassava starch. Some industries particularly in Europe use yam flour in preparation of high quality biscuits, bread, cakes to mention but few. In Nigeria also, it is used in production of high quality bread and cakes. The yam chips and pellets can also play the same function as cassava chips & pellets in production of livestock feeds. Yam Starch has a lot of industrial uses. Consumer demand for yam is generally very high in this sub-region and yam cultivation is very profitable despite high production costs. There is huge profit in yam farming business; for example Five hundred by five hundred meters size of farmland could yield up to 50,000 tubers of yam which is valued at N10 million ($50,000) at one dollars per yam. This is a golden opportunity for any serious farmer who would like to take advantage of huge demand to cultivate yam in large quantity. Apart from selling locally, yam can be exported to the United States of America, United Kingdom, Netherlands, France, Germany, and even Japan. While Nigeria is the major producer of yam in the world followed by Ivory Coast, Ghana is in the other hand the major exporter of yams, accounting for over 90% of total yams exported from West Africa annually.

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